Highway Research Record

V. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION
2. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
COMPLETED PROJECTS
Nationally Coordinated Project – Urban Transport Environment Interaction

Duration:April 2001 to June 2004
(i) All India Council for Technical Education, New Delhi (S)
(ii) Centre of Transportation Engineering (COTE), Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee (R)
(iii) Malviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (I)
(iv) Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (I)
(v) Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh (I)
(vi) Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lucknow (I)

Present Status and Progress

In the Nationally Coordinated Project, Urban Transport Environment Interaction, data has been collected on the identified locations of Delhi, Jaipur, Allahabad, Chandigarh and Lucknow. The locations are identified on the basis of landuse as Residential, Commercial, Heavy Traffic and Silence zones. The data collected for the study includes:
(i) Classified Traffic Volume
(ii) Classified Traffic Speed
(iii) Ambient Noise Level
(iv) Air Pollution Samples for CO, NOx, SO2 and SPM.

Findings/Conclusions
Noise Analysis Results for five cities
The urban traffic noise pollution study were conducted for the five identified cities of India. These cities are Delhi, Jaipur, Chandigarh, Allahabad and Lucknow. The roadside noise and air pollution were monitored at the identified locations in four land use zones i.e. Residential, Commercial, Silence and Heavy Traffic. At each location, following data were collected:
• Classified hourly traffic volume
• Spot speed
• Road Geometrics measurements
• Monitoring of noise pollution
Noise modelling was carried out to examine the suitability of the available noise models such as FHWA and CORTN along with regression based techniques and statistical analysis.

Air Pollution Analysis Results for five cities
The urban area, traffic air pollution study was conducted for the five identified cities. The roadside noise and air pollution were monitored at the identified locations in four identified land use zones i.e. Residential, Commercial, Silence and Heavy Traffic Zones. At each location, following data were collected:
• Classified hourly traffic volume
• Spot speed
• Road Geometrics measurements
• Meteorological data including wind speed, direction, temperature and humidity
• Monitoring of air pollutants like CO, SO2, NOx and SPM.
Using the monitored air pollutants along with traffic and meteorological data, air pollutant modelling was carried out. For this purpose, the available models such as CALINE 4, GFLSM, GM and HIWAY were applied. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study for the identified cities.

Recommendations
In order to control environmental pollution the following measures should be adopted.
(i) Staggering of office hours – As it is found that the traffic is at the peak during morning hours and evening hours and the      maximum pollution is found during these hours .It is better to stagger the office opening and closing timings of different     organizations. This will reduce the traffic and rather segregate the traffic and will reduce the environmental pollution.
(ii) Traffic control measures such as separation of slow moving vehicles can be done from the main stream of traffic. This will      allow the fast moving vehicles to clear the carriageway as quickly as possible and reduce the congestion and hence      pollution.
(iii) For relieving congestion, fast motorways are recommended to enable transit traffic pass unhindered. Traffic management      systems need to be upgraded and the network of synchronized road signals need to be expanded.
(iv) The traffic management measures such as no parking zone, restriction of vehicle entry at public places; road pricing etc       should be adopted to check the growth of personalized vehicles.
(v) The possibility of alternative fuels, which are less polluting than the conventional fuel, may be explored. For example the      use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) has proved to be cleaner, safer and cost effective.
(vi) Emission of SO2 may be minimized by reduction of the present sulphur content in diesel and by adopting ultra low sulphur       diesel. According to Auto Fuel Policy 2002 the sulphur content is now reduced to lowest.
(vii) Improvements in the Road planning and design should be explored so that the new routes for traffic allocation may be       adopted and the congestion  at the sections can be removed ultimately leading to reduction of environmental pollution.
(viii) The Inspection & Maintenance system for inspection, maintenance and certification of commercial and non-commercial       vehicles shall be implemented. It will include testing of various elements of safety, roadworthiness and compliance with       pollution norms.
(ix) Database of age profile of vehicles need to be generated for the purpose of knowing average age of vehicles plying on       road and their condition.
(x) Mass awareness campaigns regarding air pollution due to vehicular traffic involving students, voluntary organizations and       NGOs are organized.
(xi) Air pollution due to traffic is closely related to the driving habits. The automobile professionals and drivers should be trained       for pollution control due to vehicular traffic.
(xii) A code of practice should be framed to study the transportation related environmental pollution in urban areas. Most of       the strategies for pollution abatement have been adopted without analyzing the interrelationship between traffic       parameters and various pollutants.
(xiii) The concerned authorities need to adopt preventive measures and future strategies to combat the menace of air         pollution. This will ensure in providing better environment to the citizens.
(xiv) There is a need to correlate environmental pollution vis a vis health risk morbidity due to seasonal change in vehicular         emissions.
(xv) Identification of positive agents with disease conditions which aggravates by air pollution viz. asthma, bronchitis, cataract,        cardiovascular damage and cancer is equally important.
(xvi) The cumulative/ synergistic/ antagonistic effect of air pollution with water and noise contamination is yet to be unveiled        for clear understanding and it is high time to explore these aspects
(xvii) Vehicles have been identified as the major source of pollutants in metro cities. Thus, vehicular pollution control in         metropolitan cities and other cities need to give a high priority. Introduction of mass public Transport along with IPT         modes will be most suitable. However NMV should at the same time be also encouraged by providing proper facilities for         them. The road network should also be improved by providing additional lanes and clearing the encroachments. Some of         the routes should be converted to one way routes and synchronized signals on selected routes be provided to reduce         delay and achieve improved traffic flow.
(xviii) The measures taken, such as reduction of Sulphur, increasing the Cetane and octane number of the fuel also leading to          the reduction of the air pollution.

Reports/Publications

1. 23 research papers published from IIT Roorkee.
2. 3 research papers published from MNNIT Allahabad
3. 3 research papers published from MNIT Jaipur
4. 7 research papers published from IET Lucknow
5. 7 reports published from IIT Roorkee.