Highway Research Record

V. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION
2. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
ON GOING PROJECTS
Road Transport Sector GHG Emissions Inventory

Date of Start:: September 2003
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, I)

Present Status and Progress
Comprehensive database was generated on greenhouse gas (GHGs) emission for transport sector in India covering road, rail, aviation and navigation/shipping. The 20-years time series (1979–1999) was prepared on GHG emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, NOx and NMVOC) from transport sector. The emission inventory was made at the segregated level (state and union territory level) for 1994 (base year for developing countries). This work was reported earlier by CRRI under `Inventory Estimation of GHG Emissions from Transport Sector’. The overall report was compiled by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India and was communicated to UNFCCC as India’s Initial National Communication in June 2004.

As a corollary to the above work, additional work was carried out as Addendum to the GHG emission inventory as Road Transport Sector GHG Emissions Inventory as part of India’s Initial National Communication (NATCOM) to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The objective and scope of the study include generation of greenhouse gas emissions inventory for road transport sector for the year 2000. The activity was part of the India’s Initial National Communication (NATCOM) to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Findings/Conclusions

The inventory was generated using Tier – I IPCC (IPCC, 1996) Methodology Protocol and QA/QC procedure (IPCC Good Practice Report, 2000) for estimation and reporting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for road transport sector. The fuel consumption statistics (gasoline, diesel, lubricants) for road transport sector was obtained from official reports. The efforts were made to reduce the extent and level of uncertainty associated with fuel consumption (especially diesel) component (use in sectors other than road transportation). For comparability, the consumption units were converted in to tera joules (Tj). The appropriate IPCC emission coefficients were used to estimate CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, NOx and NMVOC emissions.

The GHG emission potentials from fuel use in vehicle category groups 2W/3W, Car/Taxi (gasoline-powered) and LCV, MCV/HCV (diesel-powered) were estimated at segregated (State/UT) and national level for the year 2000. The appropriate IPCC emission coefficients were used to estimate CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, NOx and NMVOC emissions. The CO2-equivalent emissions of 105 tera gram (Tg) was estimated for the year 2000, with relative contributions of 104 Tg CO2, 243 Gg (giga gram) CH4 and 278 Gg of N2O (direct GHGs) respectively. The contribution of CO, NOx and NMVOC (indirect GHGs) was estimated at 3.5 Tg, 1.1 Tg and 0.7 Tg respectively from road transportation sector in India.

The significance of the study lies in the fact that road transport is the largest consumer of commercial energy used in transport sector in the country. Hence, any change in energy consumption pattern in this sector will have impact on local and global environments.

Limitations
The uncertainty in activity data (fuel statistics) at end-use needs improvement.

Recommendations
The GHG inventory work needs to be updated further in view of the Kyoto Protocol obligations for which India is one of the signatories.