Highway Research Record

Parking Pricing – A Tool for Urban Congestion Management: A case study for Mumbai

Duration: January 2004 to June 2004
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (R)

Scope and Objective
(i) To reduce the congestion in urban areas selecting the appropriate congestion management measure, which is user      acceptable.
(ii) To appreciate the problem of traffic congestion in urban areas.
(iii) To review various methods for managing urban traffic congestion in urban areas and case study in particular.
(iv) To assess the traffic and network characteristics in case study area.
(v) To develop and test parking pricing technique / method on the case study.
(vi) To evolve the user acceptability for parking pricing scheme through elasticity of travel demand and with respect to       network applicability.
(vii) To identify the policy measures of parking pricing scheme for implementation.

An extensive literature survey was carried to study the parking problem and framing objectives of research. The survey like Willingness to Pay or User Survey in CBD were carried out to collect primary data. Secondary data like Demographic and economic characteristics, Network and Landuse characteristics, Traffic and Travel Characteristics of study area, Road Transport taxation details, Existing parking supply and demand were collected to assess the scale of problem in the study area. Analysis of Elasticity of Parking Demand in CBD and Cross Elasticity of Parking demand was done through the data collected from the primary and the secondary sources. Parking Pricing Policy was developed for the study area from the conclusions drawn from the analysis of the data.

Findings and Conclusions
(i) Urban congestion is resulting in significant losses.
(ii) Parking spill over is one of the major contributor to urban congestion.
(iii) Urban congestion management can be done with supply or demand management.
(iv) Under demand management options, economic restraints are most are most effective in short run.
(v) Parking pricing offers advantages due to high user acceptability, low capital costs, deterrence to car usage, improvement in      network conditions, etc.
(vi) Uncontrolled parking is one of the major causes of congestion in CBD area of Mumbai city.
(vii) At any given time, 20% of the curbside space is occupied by parking.
(viii) Illegal parking acts range as high as 70% of total parking acts in the CBD parking lots.
(ix) There has to be only demand management solution to the problem, acknowledging the fact that there is no scope for       supply/ network augmentation.
(x) The enforcement of parking controls is poor in city due to deficient police staff.
(xi) To facilitate this, an dedicated agency like Mumbai Municipal Parking Agency should be created under Greater Mumbai       Municipal Corporation.

Santosh Kekane, “Parking Pricing – A Tool for Urban Congestion Management, Case study- Mumbai”, Master’s Thesis (unpublished), Department of Transport Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, 2004