16. Urban Structure and Transport Interrelationship in Indian Cities
Date of Start

January 2006
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (R)


Scope and Objectives

(i) To appreciate the existing practice of city planning in the country and identify issues related to transport infrastructure provisions in city plans.

(ii) To review global literature relating to urban form and structure and land use transport interrelationships.

(iii) To analyze the urban structure, transport supply and travel patterns of case studies in India across city typology.

(iv) To develop simplified models, establishing relationship between Urban Structure-Travel Pattern-Transport Supply for case studies and analyze its sensitivity with respect to urban structure parameters.

(v) To propose guidelines for rapid assessment of travel demand and transport supply for various city typologies based on urban structure parameters.

The scope of the work is based on secondary data collected for 40 cities, upto 45 lakhs population in the country from various reports and published papers.

Urban form/structure determinants and travel characteristics were identified from in depth literature review and the impact of urban form and structure on travel patterns reviewed and is higher in linear cities was seen. In third stage determinants like urban form/structure, travel pattern indicators and transport supply indicators were compiled and collected for 40 cites below 45 lakh population size. Urban structure analysis of case studies using indicators such as urban radius, coefficient of dispersion was carried out. Various models were developed, to determine urban structure and travel patterns relationship, and to estimate corridor volume for given urban structure. The best fitted models were identified for estimation. Afterwards validation of these models and their application to NURM cities for policy planning was carried out. Finally in the last stage sensitivity analysis was done to evolve planning guidelines.
Findings and Conclusions
(i) Urban radius, a measure of sprawl, increases with the increase in city size.

(ii) Linear monocentric cities have urban radii varying from 1.2 km to 4.9 km while in case of linear polycentric it is 3.7 km to 16.5 km.

(iii) Circular monocentric cities have urban radii varying 1.6 km to 8.2 km while in case of circular polycentric it is 5 km to 13.5 km. Thus circular monocentric cities have greater tendency to sprawl in comparison to linear cities.

(iv) In circular polycentric cities, employment is more dispersed than population

(v) Location association factor is minimum in linear monocentric cities and gradually increases for other structures; maximum is in circular polycentric cities, signifying higher association between population and jobs.

(vi) Among all the urban structure indicators, urban radius comes out to be the most significant parameter for estimation of travel demand.