EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In the General Report on Road Research Work done in India for the year 2005-2006, published as the Highway Research Record No. 33, the research work done by 16 organisations on various aspects has been reported. The report has been compiled by CRRI. The R&D work is reported under the following five major Areas and the Research work done in Academic Institutions related to the thesis work
  1. Highway Planning, Management, Performance Evaluation and Instrumentation
  2. Pavement Engineering and Paving Materials
  3. Geotechnical Engineering
  4. Bridge Engineering
  5. Traffic & Transportation Engineering
I. Highway Planning, Management, Performance Evaluation & Instrumentation
  1.1 Highway Planning & Management
  A study on development of hill highway between Thiruvananthapuram and Kasaragod Districts has been reported. Based on the inventory of various alternative routes, traffic studies, socio-economic and environmental consideration, the most feasible alignment has been suggested.
  Under traffic studies for preparation of master plan for the development of Ponani Port in Kerala, the traffic potentials of the port have been assessed. Expected divertible traffic forecasts have been worked out for three scenarios of Optimistic, Moderate and Pessimistic. Traffic study has revealed that there is a potential for the port to be developed as a Seaport for coastal shipping once it is well integrated with Inland Water Transport.
  As a part of the CSIR network project a study on national data centre for managing data for planning, design and management of roads has been reported. The spatial information required for GIS based Road Information System (RIS) has been generated using survey of India toposheets. The data collected under various project undertaken by CRRI has been computerized in GIS environment. The riding quality data collected along the Golden Quadrilateral has been computerized in GIS platform and thematic maps are generated.
  Under the new projects the important project reported are development of GIS based road information system for National Highways with an objective to collect and collate the road related data for 50,000 km of NHs in GIS environment and also evolving a long term maintenance and rehabilitation strategies using HDM-4. In addition, preparation of computerized inventory of roads for Kothamangalam and Koovappady Block Panchayaths in Ernakulam District (Kerala) revealed that developed database related to road details along with settlement level data can be used for the preparation of Road Development Plan required for PMGSY, Bharath Nirman or NABARD funded road development schemes.
  A case study on GIS techniques for traffic management measures revealed that an integration of modeling framework and GIS has been used as a scientific tool for the evaluation of existing traffic scenario and for recommending TSM actions through analysis. Planning TSM actions in light of the user preferences is a new initiative in the planning of a road network that has been attempted in this current study.
  Network analysis tool in ARC GIS (V 9.1) has been effectively used in planning the mobility patronage and for recommending short-term measures in a medium sized town. In the project, study on third party Acceptance and Testing of RIS Software, the objective is application and functional testing of the RIS software modules and its detailed data parameters in conjunction with detailed design document. The study shows that RIS application is web based application which will be useful for decision making process for planning, design and management of roads. The identified defects in the RIS applications will be very much useful to improve the software application. Some of the new projects on feasibility study for the construction of elevated road, traffic data counts and base line data collection and analysis and road network approaches for location of urban amenities in rural areas have been reported in the area.
 
  1.2 Pavement Evaluation
  Research work reported in this area relates to projects on pavement failure investigations, covering structural and functional evaluation of pavements and laboratory evaluation of road construction materials. Completed projects include evaluation of New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT) road network and needed rehabilitation measures; impact assessment of rehabilitation works on overloading, vehicles speed, travel time and roughness (in terms of IRI) for some state highways of Uttar Pradesh (U.P) and evaluation and improvement measures for selected roads of New Delhi Municipal Corporation.
  The savings in vehicle operating costs (VOCs) accrued by various types of vehicles was determined which directly brought out the impact of rehabilitation / improvement works. Evaluation of some selected roads in NDMC area was carried out for recommending the maintenance and rehabilitation measures. Based on the total surface distressed area and prevailing level of roughness, two options had been suggested for improvement of NDMC roads, which consist of modern technologies such as Microsurfacing, Recycling and Conventional technologies such as Hot Bituminous Mixes.
  New projects taken up include impact of digging by public utility departments on urban roads; and investigations to determine the likely causes for development of slippage and cracking on NOIDA-Greater NOIDA expressway and needed remedial measures. Study on impact of digging by Public utility departments on urban roads was taken up to assess the impact of digging on roads on the structural and functional deterioration, safety, congestion, delays and user costs. The study identifies the problems associated with pavement utility cuts and would recommend potential solutions based on policies and technologies. Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken on NOIDA-Greater NOIDA expressway to evaluate the structural and functional conditions of the expressway pavement for determining the likely causes responsible for development of pavement surface distress.
   
  1.3 Pavement Performance
  Research works reported in this sub-section mainly comprise studies on performance of bituminous mixes with crumb rubber, natural rubber and SBS, SBR polymer modified binders; Recron 3S polyester fiber and waste plastics; performance of flexible pavements with regular and modified sub bases; asset management study; instrumentation and testing of demonstration stretches for concrete rural roads and suitability of locally available materials for road construction.
  Projects which have been completed consist of Bituminous bound macadam (BBM) for strengthening of existing pavements on National Highways and use of laterite stones in WBM construction. It is observed that performance of test track having BBM layer is excellent and this treatment is time saving as compared to Built up Spray Grout (BUSG). The laterite stone has sufficient mechanical strength and toughness to withstand low and medium traffic of MDRs, besides cost savings of the order of 25-30 %.
  On-going projects include performance study on proposed flexible pavements with regular and modified sub bases and evaluation of Recron 3S polyester fiber for use in bituminous mixes. New projects initiated and some of which are in advanced stage of progress consist of investigations on field performance of bituminous mixes with modified binders, instrumentation and testing of demonstration stretches for concrete rural roads, use of yellow stone in road construction, suitability of locally available materials for road construction and asset management study of Ahmedabad-Mehsana Toll Road.
  Basic properties of different binders will be studied in the laboratory and comparative analysis of various properties of modified binders will be brought out to study the field performance of bituminous mixes with modified binders. Stretches of concrete pavements shall be laid with different types of concrete viz. conventional concrete, concrete with 30 % flyash and high volume flyash concrete. Strain and temperature gauges shall be embedded in concrete at the time of casting at different locations i.e. edges, corners and centre of slab to generate data on performance of concrete slabs of different thicknesses for rural concrete roads. Study on asset management was taken up to study the adequacy or otherwise of the maintenance provisions / inputs planned in the concession agreement for maintaining the assets under BOT scheme and to recommend modifications in maintenance requirements in case the provisions stipulated in the concession agreements fall short of requirements to attain the specified serviceability level at the end of the concession agreement. Data collected for the study is being analyzed through HDM-4 software. Findings emerging out of the study would be used in checking the adequacy of maintenance provisions / inputs planned in the concession agreement for maintaining the assets as per pre-determined requirements stipulated in the contract agreement.
  1.4 Instrumentation
  A completed project in the area of instrumentation, a Road Condition Evaluation Equipment has been designed, and fabricated for A.P. Government. The Axle Mounted Roughness Measuring Device has been calibrated by recording its response and comparing the same with that of Dipstick for different sections having a wide range of roughness varying from very smooth to very poor. For calibration purpose Axle Mounted Roughness Measuring Device installed in the Maruti car was run at a speed of 30 km/hr. Among the on going projects, Development of Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) System for traffic management using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) Tags and Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Technology, RFID equipments have been procured and installed. Field trials are in progress. Another project reported on development of Roller Mounted Nuclear Density Gauge, in-situ soil densities have been obtained by nuclear and conventional methods. The results obtained compare very well.
   
2. Pavement Engineering and Paving Materials
  2.1 Soil Stabilisation, Low Grade Materials and Low Volume Roads
  On going projects on use of ash generated from Surat Lignite Power Plant for different types of clayey soil for construction of roads and demonstration of CRRI technology for construction of a demonstration test stretch road using Marble Slurry Dust (MSD) in district Rajsamand, Rajasthan has been reported by different organizations during the year. The ash generated from Surat Lignite Power Plant is eco friendly material. It was observed that mixes the ash and lime with different types of clayey soils it is found that density decreases with addition of lime and ash but the CBR value increases. Demonstration stretches constructed will go a long way in gaining the users’ confidence for bulk utilization of marble slurry dust in road pavement layers and embankments and thus will help marble industry of the state, environmentally sustainable. A new project on ground stabilization techniques for road construction in clayey soils of Kuttanadu Region has been reported. The objectives are to analyse the engineering properties of clayey soils in Kuttanadu region, study the effect of ground improvement technologies such as sand drains, geotextile drains and to study the field performance of coir reinforced small clay embankments under wet and dry conditions.
   
  2.2 Flexible Pavements
  A study on the use modified bitumen binders has been reported. Samples of modified bitumen by adding natural rubber, SBS, EVA and aggregates from Sevalia area quarry were collected for laboratory investigation. Under field study experimental stretches were laid on Waghodia-Rustampura road for each modified binder and control section. Three sets of performance have been completed.
  Laboratory Study for Suitability of Chalk, a by-Product of Nitro-Phosphate Fertilizer Plant for road construction revealed that impure chalk can be used in 3-5 % by weight of aggregates in different bituminous mixes in base course as well wearing courses. It can be used in SDBC and BM with emulsion, which facilitate the construction without heating. Five percent replacement of sand by chalk in Pavement Quality Concrete increased the compressive strength about 3 and 8 % at 7 and 28 days respectively.
  Under collaborative network project, feasibility of polymeric sheets of varying thickness was assessed by testing the polypack modified bitumen for their physical properties. The shredded film is completely dispersible in bitumen in hot melt condition whereas it gets separated from bituminous phase at ambient temperature.
  Field trials of polymer modified bitumen on NH-1A indicated that test track using polymer modified bitumen is performing good after one year. Field trials were also carried out with multigrade bitumen at two different climatic regions. 100 meters each of test sections with multigrade bitumen and control sections with conventional bitumens 80/100 & 60/70 have been laid at Drass and Jaisalmer with four road specifications. To study the shelf life of bitumen emulsion, five grades of bitumen emulsions have been prepared and tested as per IS: 8887-2004 specification after six months of storage.
  A study on evaluation of bituminous products using SHRP equipments revealed that crumb rubber modified bitumen has highest resistance compared with conventional and multigrade bitumen. Multigrade bitumens have showed better fatigue and low temperature cracking resistance than conventional and crumb rubber modified bitumens. A project on influence of aggregate grading on Asphalt Mix Volumetrics revealed that grading giving rise to higher VMA values fulfill the requirement of having relatively higher asphalt contents with higher initial voids contents.
  A study on preparation of manual for the development of six-lane National Highways is in progress. This manual will standardize specification for six lane BOT project and will contain technical requirements, construction specifications, design parameters etc.
   
  2.3 Rigid Pavements
  A completed project in the area of rigid pavements reported on “Evaluation of Wollastonite in concrete works revealed that partial substitution of sand by natural wollastonite micro fibres in normal and fly ash concrete brings about 20 and 30 percent improvement in compressive strength at 28 and 56 days respectively and 30 and 40 percent increase in flexural strength for the same period. Reduced water absorption, drying shrinkage and abrasion loss of concrete with use of wollastonite is reported. It has been recommended that construction of concrete test sections incorporating wollastonite should be taken up to evaluate the material in actual field conditions.
  Completed project on “High Volume Flyash Concrete for Pavements” revealed that 7 and 28 days compressive and flexural strength of all fly ash concrete mixtures with 0.4 w/cm (water / cementitious material) ratio is lower than the corresponding concrete mixes without fly ash. However, 90 days compressive and flexural strength of fly ash concrete mixtures was found to be higher than the corresponding concrete mixtures without fly ash upto a fly ash content of 40 % irrespective of w/cm ratio of the mix. A downward trend in compressive and flexural strengths was observed for fly ash content more than 40%. Lesser drying shrinkage and abrasion loss of concrete with use of fly ash as compared with control mixes is reported. The decrease in the drying shrinkage and abrasion resistance is found to increase with increasing fly ash content. Projects on construction of concrete pavements with high volume fly ash are reported performing satisfactorily.
  A project on the flakiness and elongation indices of aggregates revealed that more flaky aggregates than those of specified values may be used in different layers of concrete pavement construction. It is reported that sites have been selected as experimental stretches on an ongoing project on use of Sulfonated Melamine Formaldehyde super plasticizer and fly ash in cement concrete roads.
   
3. Geotechnical Engineering
  Landslide hazard mitigation, ground improvement techniques and embankment and slope stability are the major R & D areas pursued by different organizations during the year. Landslide investigations on Phuentsholling – Thimpu Road, Bhutan; investigation instrumentation and monitoring of Patalganga landslide on NH-58, Uttaranchal; study of landslide and rockfall on Mumbai-Pune Expressway and investigation and remedial measures for the stabilisation of Slopes at km.42 on NH-150, Mizoram are the projects undertaken to study the landslide problems.
  GIS based subsurface geotechnical map of Delhi and microzonation map of Delhi and guidelines for soil nailing technique in highway engineering, MOSRT&H Research Scheme are the projects on natural disaster. Selection of backfill material for appropriate compaction of backfill over metro tunnel alignment between Barakhamba Road-Connaught Place-Dwaraka Section; Design of fly ash embankment for widening of marginal road bund from GT Road-to-Road No. 59; investigation and design of high embankment on soft ground using fly ash fill for bypass road from Kalindi Colony to Kalindi Kunj, New Delhi; feasibility study on the use of copper slag wastes in road and embankment construction and use of jute geotextile for efficient road drainage and stabilization have been reported in the area of ground improvement techniques and utilization of waste materials.
   
4. Bridge Engineering
  Research project on GIS application for Data Management of Bridges –A Pilot Study has been reported for the first time. The study is to develop an interactive information system, which would provide a data management system for bridges in Thiruvananthapuram division. The objective of the study is to inventorize the bridges in the study area as per IRC guidelines, prepare location maps & lay out diagram and design the information system using the data to have an interactive user interface. Technical details of the bridges available from earlier studies were updated by site inspection. The GIS software used is Arc GIS 9.0 and the system is developed on Areobjects environment on which user interface is provided using the programming language Visual Basic NET 2003. MS Excel and Auto CAD are used for data preparation. The data base for 120 bridges are provided in the information system and will be help fill in data management of these bridges by providing the information required for decision making. The information system provides necessary feed back for decision making. This is beneficial to the agencies that own the structures such as PWD, NHAI, etc. The present study has to be extended to other fourteen divisions of PWD to form a complete Bridge Information System for Kerala.
  Some of the On-going/Completed Projects reported include Study on Hard topping for distressed CC wearing coats and concrete pavements, study on high volume fly ash concrete for rigid pavements, creating a data base on bridge information system for the State of Tamil Nadu, dynamic response of prestressed concrete bridges, determination of scour depth (for general bed, within channel contractions and at bridge piers) in boulder-bed rivers under high stream velocities (B-33), distress diagnostic, performance evaluation and bridge management system for concrete bridges (A collaborative project with DST, New Delhi), creation of National Test facility, formulation of guidelines, specifications, manual of practice for design and execution of expansion joints, preparation of Draft Specification for use of High Performance Concrete (HPC) for pavement and bridges made with indigenously available materials (B-32) and studies for aerodynamic stability of cable stayed bridge decks (MORTH Research Scheme – B25). In the project, study on hard topping for distressed CC wearing coats and concrete pavements, the aim is to develop proper cement and polymer based concrete for repair procedures and to study their effectiveness.
  The project on creating a data base on bridge information system for the state of Tamil Nadu aims to develop the particulars of bridges on various categories of roads in Tamil Nadu such as NH, SH, MDR & ODR into the System using MS ACCESS programme classifying the data into 17 different aspects for each bridge. The bridges will be given numbers and the same will be intimated to the (Maintenance wing) Divisional Engineers of Highways. In dynamic response of prestressed concrete bridges, the objective of the study is to develop a realistic modelling of prestressed concrete bridges, which is capable to take into account the time dependent non-linear effect of creep & shrinkage. Based on this modelling, computer software will be developed. Further study, particularly based on dynamic tests in linear / non-linear field is proposed to be carried out to find out the dynamic response of PSC bridges.
  In the project on distress diagnostic, performance evaluation and bridge management system for concrete bridges the objective is to develop a suitable technology in terms of methodologies/algorithms (for development of software) and necessary hardware (instruments/techniques) applicable to different concrete highway bridges in the country, for Bridge Management System. Development confines to one number of bridges of type T-beam girder which is most commonly employed on highways in India. Validation of the same will be done on other bridges, if possible. The project on creation of National Test facility, Formulation of Guidelines, Specifications, manual of Practice for Design and Execution of Expansion Joints aims to develop the testing facilities to evaluate bridge deck joints at CRRI Dynamic cum Heavy Testing Laboratory at Ghaziabad.
  Field testing of expansion joints is not always feasible due to the high cost of testing and traffic closure problems. In view of this laboratory testing of expansion joints is preferable. Creation of such a National Test Facility in our country will help to devise rationalized acceptance criteria for bridge expansion joints before their installation in field. This will ensure better field performance throughout the service life of expansion joints. It will also encourage the manufacturers of our country to produce innovative expansion joints indigenously through technology transfer through their principals located abroad.
  The reported work on studies for Aerodynamic Stability of Cable Stayed Bridge Decks (MORTH Research Scheme –B25) is limited to aerodynamic stability of cable stayed bridge decks. More efforts are to be carried out to investigate the aerodynamics of other type of bridge decks used in long span cable stayed bridges. Further, wind tunnel studies are to be carried out to under stand the aerodynamic effects on pylons of different configuration and cables of different diameters. Draft final report has been submitted to the Ministry which is under examination.
  One project reported as completed is on preparation of Draft Specification for use of High Performance Concrete (HPC) for Pavement and Bridges made with indigenously available materials (B-32). The final report was submitted to the Ministry after incorporating its observation. Subsequently it was further sent to the experts for their comments. Finally the extract of the report along with the comments of the experts has been sent to IRC so that the findings may take place in “the guidelines for the use of HPC” being formulated by IRC.
   
5. Traffic and Transportation
  5.1 Planning and Management
  Under section entitled “Planning and Management” a study of congestion and parking problems of selected locations in Delhi has been reported. It was observed that vehicles used by people who work in the vicinity of the parking places often occupy much of the parking spaces for example 20-25 percent longer duration. It was observed that the number of parking spaces for shoppers, traders and visitors to business are not adequate. The study findings indicate that parking demand is increasing due to the growth of private vehicles and the present parking demand in the study location varied from a maximum of 7720 ECS to a minimum of 1300 ECS.
  A study on the impact of new high rise buildings on road traffic at Tardeo, Mumbai concludes the V/C ratio was more than 1.0 on most of the roads implying very high traffic congestion. Therefore the study recommended that it was imperative to carry out capacity augmentation measures which are envisaged under the development plans of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM).
  A study on the Estimation of Fuel Loss during idling of vehicles at signalized intersections in Delhi indicated that 372245.6 kilograms of CNG, 129745.5 litres of diesel and 405042.7 litres of petrol are wasted everyday due to idling of vehicles, at 600 signalized intersections of low, medium and high volume. Converting these figures into monetary terms, the total losses work out to be Rs.272.5 lakhs per day and Rs.994.5 crores per annum. In study on the estimation of fuel loss on mid-block section of Chelmsford road opposite New Delhi Railway Station concluded that 66,000 vehicles ply on Chelmsford road in a day, on a running speed of 18.04 Km./hr. from CP to Sadar bazaar and Sadar bazaar to CP respectively. Delay is observed to be 158.82 sec./vel, during peak hours. The low running speeds and delay accrue a fuel loss of Rs.38,43,231/- and Rs.71,80,694/- annually. The annual time loss in monetary terms is estimated to be Rs.2,39,77,080/-.
  Keeping the characteristics of the traffic and constraints in improving the road infrastructure in view, the improvement measures have been suggested. The measures are of two types, the short term and the long term.
  An application of Highway Development and Maintenance software (HDM-4) was made to carry out economic analysis of the Upgrade and Improvement for Kawrthah – Kanhmun – Lowerpu Road in Mizoram. It was observed that EIRR = 20.3%, NPV=84.732 million rupees, NPV/CAP-0.609 (Discount rate was taken as 12%. With 20% increase in anticipated expenditure (RAC), EIRR-17.3%, NPV-61.009 million Rupees, NPV/CAP=0.359 which shows upto 20% increase in construction and maintenance cost, the project is economically viable.
  The results of the study on National Capital Territory of Delhi roads indicate that about 20 percent of arterial road network is operating under highly congested conditions with travel speeds falling below 20 kmph. Only 23 percent of the arterial network is operating at speeds of 40 kmph and above. These results indicate that the congestion levels are reaching unacceptable limits and serious efforts are required to improve the operating conditions by employing appropriate upgradation measures for the network besides adopting suitable travel demand management measures.
  The study conducted for the Shantipath stretch in the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) area in New Delhi has revealed that the traffic flows are fairly uniform in composition on this road stretch with car traffic dominating the flow and the slow moving vehicles being very marginal. The traffic flows are well within the required level of service and looking into the future also, it is not expected that the traffic will grow rapidly on this section because the areas on either ends have been developed fully and therefore the traffic growth will be very nominal. Hence, it is recommended to provide additionally only 1.5 m soft shoulders (on either side) immediately for the entire road stretch without any need for undertaking any road widening measures till 2021.
  Comprehensive traffic and transportation studies for Surat city recommended various intersections design suggesting pedestrian, cycle, and parking facilities as a part of the short-term traffic engineering / management measures.
  The other studies under this section include the Economic Feasibility of Delhi Metro Extensions – Badarpur to Faridabad and Mundka to Bahadurgarh. This study is under progress and detailed report will be submitted to DMRC for the preparation of Detailed Project Report. A study on fare Policy and pricing of Public Transport Services in Kerala concluded that the fuel mileage of stage carriages showed an improvement in the long distance operation. The fare structure after arriving normal return on investment worked out to be Rs.0.54 per passenger km for ordinary buses and Rs.0.59 per passenger km. for fast buses for a capacity utilization of 75 percent.
   
  5.2 Safety and Environment
  Under this topic road safety in metropolitan city of Ahmedabad and road safety measures on Vadodara-Dabhoi Road passing through SH-11 have been reported and the recommendations include identification of the accident prone locations which have been suggested to Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation based on the available information.
  A road safety audit study for selected stretch of Ring road Chennai recommended that over-speeding should be controlled by imposing strict enforcement measures. Shoulders for the entire stretch should be maintained in good conditions, the signal should be made visible, truck lay byes should be provided along the entire stretch of the road and bus stops from some of the locations should be shifted as per IRC:70-1977.
  A study on safe road to school children for promoting safety awareness amongst school children recommended that the programme may be carried out in various panchayats and also the study recommended establishment of suitable road safety clubs in schools.
  A study on accident costing concluded that accident cost for fatal accident is Rs.4.10 lacs for serious is Rs.1.80 lacs, for minor accident is Rs.5000 and for property damage is Rs.1.20 lacs.
  A study on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies for Badarpur-Faridabad and Mundka-Bahadurgarh Corridors of Delhi Metro recommended that, based on the EIA report detailed EMP has been delineated to minimize the adverse / negative environmental impacts due to the construction and operation of the proposed metro corridor(s).
  A study on environmental impact of Road Transport recommended that the proposed EIA guidelines for roads / highways projects needs to be critically examined / reviewed by implementing agencies like MoEF, CPWD, State PWDs and NHAI for its applicability and usefulness under different terrain, land-use and traffic conditions.
  A study on road accident modeling for highway development and management in developing countries indicated that road accident prediction model developed was statistically tested and validated and it was observed that the model gives the expected number of accidents based on classified vehicular traffic, number of accesses to the road and prevailing cross sectional hazards. The study also found that increase in number of fast moving vehicles like cars, buses and small trucks causes increase in expected number of road accidents. The study of helmet preferences in Thiruvanthapuram and Cochin city concluded that nearly 63% of the two-wheeler riders possess helmets in Thiruvanthanpuram city. Of these, hardly 8% of two wheelers riders use helmets regularly. In the case of Cochin city over 75% of bike riders possess helmets and of which 28% of two wheeler riders use helmets regularly. The respondents in both the cities agreed that helmet wearing should be made compulsory and it should be enforced in a sustainable way.
  A study on overtaking behaviour of motor vehicles in urban areas indicated that the average percentage of vehicles overtaking from the right side by crossing the yellow line in the morning peak period was 13%. The average percentage of vehicles overtaking from the right side by crossing the yellow line in the evening peak period was 9%. Among the types of vehicles cars / jeeps / taxis perform maximum overtaking maneovures crossing the yellow line marking.
  The study of spot speed in city and rural sections of highways concluded that average spot speed at School zone in Trivandrum city is 36 km/hr during peak hour and 40 km/hr during school timings. The spot speed at school zone in suburban area is 48 km/hr. The spot speed at hospital zone in rural section is 37 km./hr. the spot speed at business zone is 47 km/hr.
   
6. Research Work Done in Academic Institutes Related to Thesis Work
  The salient features of some of the completed projects are:
  1. A study on methodology for planning and evaluation of rural road network revealed that the integrated functional accessibility approach is useful for preparation of block level master plan for rural roads. Ranking of rural road projects can be carried out using this methodology.
  2. A study on quantification of benefits due to pavement preventive maintenance strategies revealed that the life of the pavement can be extended by the application of appropriate preventive maintenance treatments. Thin overlay preventive maintenance strategy is most cost effective for highways carrying traffic from 5000cvpd to 6000cvpd. The benefits per unit agency cost for different preventive maintenance treatment depends on the trigger point of the functional parameters and the cost of the treatment.
  3. In the study on structural evaluation of airfield pavements a methodology was proposed for PCN evaluation of rigid and asphalt overlaid rigid pavements using Falling Weight Deflectometer. A program AFPCN was developed for back-calculation of elastic modulus of rigid/HMA overlaid rigid pavements and for PCN evaluation of such airfield pavements using FWD data. Back-calculation results of the program were validated using ANSYS. The PCN values obtained were found to be reasonable and consistent with the structural data of the pavement.
  4. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of SBS Polymer Modified Bituminous Concrete Mixes revealed that Marshall Stability of the mix increases by 27% when polymer modified binder was used. At constant tensile stress and pavement temperature, the fatigue life of the SBS polymer modified bituminous concrete mix increases by 95% to 360%. The magnitude of increase in fatigue life, however, decreases with increase in tensile stress. Overloading of vehicles upto 20% causes 30 to 40% reduction in life of the pavement.
  5. Laboratory investigations on bitumen modified with shredded bi-cycle tires showed the better performance of modified binder than unmodified 80/100 bitumen. The modulus of resilience of the DBM mix with tire shred modified binder was very high compared to 80/100 bitumen and material saving up to 40% can be achieved.
  6. To study the fatigue behavior of polymer–modified bituminous concrete mixes, laboratory investigations with Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene indicated the superiority of SBS modified asphalt mix in term of fatigue life, resilient modulus and crack propagation over the neat asphalt mixes. Thus polymer modified mixes can be recommended for National Highways where traffic volume is substantially high.
  7. The addition of appropriate quantity of non-biodegradable plastic wastes of polyolefin group to bitumen resulted in better performance of polymer modified bitumen at various temperature condition. Improvement in Marshall Stability and indirect tensile strength of modified mixes indicates good performance of polymer modified bitumen after laying on roads.
  8. A study on characterization of apparent viscosity of bitumen shows that the flow properties of bitumen are affected by temperature and stress-strain conditions. Bitumen behaves as a non-Newtonian at low temperatures and approaches to Newtonian as the temperature increases. This phenomenon can be observed from the apparent viscosity-shear rate graphs at various temperatures. The 60/70 grade changes faster to Newtonian state at about 100 oC while polymer modified one changes at about 135 oC.
  9. A study on laboratory evaluation of Gilsonite modified bituminous concrete indicated that the use of Gilsonite as modifier in bituminous mixes gives a high performance economical mix, which has better resistance to rutting, cracking, stripping and enhanced durability.
  10. A methodology was proposed to study the performance of two dimensional steady state flow of water within a parallel rectangular trench drainage system for multilayered soil using Finite element method (FEM). Based on the FEM, numerical results are obtained for various combinations of the soil.
  11. A study on impact of introducing Stop-Control at Uncontrolled Intersections using Computer Simulation revealed that for a given road way and traffic conditions, the overall average delay caused to traffic is more than in the case of stop-control intersection than in the case of uncontrolled intersection. In the intersection area with stop control delay caused to traffic is less in the case of uncontrolled intersection. It was observed that the overall average delay is more or less the same in the cases of both the uncontrolled and stop controlled intersections upto a volume level of 400 vehicles per hour. The average overall delay was found to have increased steeply in the cases of both uncontrolled and stop controlled intersections beyond the volume level of 900, 1000 and 1100 vehicles per hour respectively in the cases with 3.75 m, 5 m and 7.5 m wide approach roads.
  12. A study on Effect of Stream Mix on Saturation Flow Rate of Heterogeneous Traffic using Computer Simulation revealed that the value of saturation flow is relatively maximum for the combination of straight going and right turning streams, and minimum in the case of the combination of straight going, left turning and right turning streams, while the value for the combination of straight going and left turning streams lies in between the two. Also, it has been found that there is no common trend in variation of the saturation flow due to variation in traffic compositions
  13. A study on Bus Travel Time Prediction Using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Data revealed that variables like ‘Remaining Number of Bus Stops (BSij)’ and ‘Intersection Delay (Idij)’ were found to be statistically insignificant. The success rate of the model is high, with the best model having a low Mean Absolute Percentage Error of 9.0.
  14. A study on Impact of Proposed District Center on the Transport Network Case Study : Saket, revealed that the impact of the existing district center is up to radius of 7.5 km. The level of service on the affected roads drops by 14% to 20%. Junction flow in the affected roads drops in the range of 24% to 33%. An investment of Rs.2290 lakhs is required to be incurred in order to mitigate the various traffic impact caused by the proposed district center on its surrounding network.
  15. A study on Modelling Users’ Willingness to Pay for Different Attributes of an Improved Transportation System concluded that comparison of WTP estimates indicates that utilities associated with speed and comfort are more as compared to the same due to other attributes of road improvement. While personal car users have higher value of WTP for quantitative attribute speed, the bus users have higher value of WTP for qualitative attribute comfort. The work also demonstrates successful application of constrained triangular distribution in the development of RPL models. A comparison of different econometric models clearly shows an improved model performance for RPL models over MNL model. Among RPL models, the model performances improved further when the mean heterogeneity is taken into consideration. The toll roads for car and bus users are estimated by charging 25% of user benefits to respective users.
  16. A study on Optimizing Generalized Cost of Travel: An Approach for Improvement Planning of Rural Bus Service concluded that user benefits and operational viability are the two major aspects highlighted in this work for improvement planning for rural bus services. Application of genetic algorithm and simulation technique is demonstrated for identifying suitable service attributes in order to maximize user benefits and also to ensure operational viability of both services.
  17. A study on Application of Stated Preference Technique for Travel Choice Modelling concluded that travel cost and in-vehicle time are most important attributes emerging from stated preference experimental design results. Out of these vehicle cost is more critical in explaining the preference of MRTS while users are willing to accept even more higher in vehicle cost (fare) for MRTS. Stratification of the binary logit model by income group gives better model prediction than the single binary logit model for all the users.
  18. A study on Development of Trip Generation Model Using Artificial Neutral Network concluded that ANN model has the capability to choose the appropriate functions, that may necessarily not be linear in nature. As such they can incorporate both linear as well as non-linear functions with equal ease. ANN based trip generation model offers more potential to capture variables to ensure high degree of accuracy.
  19. A study on Simulation of Head-on Queues : Case of Rail-Highway Grade Crossing observed that the proposed model gives the good estimate of the delays in different types of vehicles. It was also observed that the divider reduced the congestion and even avoided the formation of gridlocks at high flow values.
  20. A study on Modeling Vehicular Emissions Under Heterogeneous Flow revealed that lane-less flow conditions generally produce higher levels of tail-pipe emissions of CO, HC and NO. The data collected in this study indicate reductions of upto 72% HC, 58% CO and 70% NO, based on average values per run along the test stretch.